If you are wine lover and you wish to find great details about it you are in the right place.
I also love wines! It tastes good in my mouth. It makes me feel very good and active’s love to drink it in the morning and evening. I prefer non-alcohol red wines.
Apart from being a wine consumer, I also have a knowledge of producing wine both in a local and professional standards
Here I want to share with you everything you need to know about wine basing on my experience. Specifically, I will cover on
What is wine?
Wine is a form of drink which is produced by using fruits known as grapes. To make wine, grapes are harvested, de-stemmed, crushed, pressed, and then fermented.
Types of wine
I can categories types of wine according to color, taste, and alcohol
The following is different styles of wine according to how they look, taste, and produced.
Most English-speaking countries refer wines which are produced traditional as sparkling wine.
In the traditional method, the wine is produced from a blend of Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier and initially does not contain any bubbles.
It is bottled and secondary fermentation in the bottle occurs through the addition of yeast and sugar to the bottle before sealing it with a temporary closure.
This secondary fermentation creates CO2 and the world-famous bubbles. It is stored for up to 3 years before corking.
The sweetness level is described on the label as follows:
This is a red or white wine without bubbles. Different styles are made based on tannin and oak content, depth of body, level of acidity, and sweetness, and depth of color. Blends give the maker the option to highlight different characteristics for balanced flavors.
These wines are made by adding grape spirit or brandy to achieve a higher alcohol level. Port, Marsala, Sherry, and Madeira are some examples of fortified wines.
It is a variety of fortified wine made from grapes grown in the region around Jerez in southern Spain. True sherry originates in this area but the style of wine is produced around the world. Sherry made in Spain comes from three types of grapes fortified with brandy:
It is traditionally produced from grape varieties from the Douro River Valley region in northern Portugal. Fortified wine in the style of Port is also produced around the world.
Port has a sweet, rich taste with generally a higher alcohol content than other wines. Typically it is enjoyed either before a meal or as a dessert wine. It is an excellent accompaniment to blue vein cheese, dried fruit, nuts, chocolate, and pate.
It is an Italian fortified wine produced similarly to Sherry. It can be served alone as an aperitif or slightly chilled with Gorgonzola. Marsala is also a suitable accompaniment for many desserts.
It is produced on the island of the same name and is produced by warming the wine and oxidizing it. This extends its lifespan and good Madeira can be consumed after 100 years!
originates in the Northern Rhone Valley in France where it is known as Syrah. It produces consistently outstanding medium to full-bodied wines deep crimson in color and with rich, ripe plum and peppery flavors. Most Shiraz wines benefit from oak maturation and may be kept for many years. The term Syrah can also be found in other wine-producing regions such as California.
is the classic red variety of the French wine region of Bordeaux. Cabernet Sauvignon wines are classified as being medium to full-bodied, typically leafy with ripe cassis-like flavors and are always well structured, elegant, and very popular with wine drinkers worldwide. Australia is famous for its blends of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon.
Is another of the famous French Bordeaux red wine varieties. Merlot wines are characterized by soft rose petal-like flavors and lovely subtle palate. Traditionally, Merlot has been blended with Cabernet Sauvignon to produce a softer, easy-drinking wine, however straight Merlot red wines are now becoming increasingly popular. Merlot is an excellent introduction to red wine for the novice wine drinker.
is used to produce a sparkling, or light-bodied, elegant dry red wines. It is also blended with Chardonnay to produce some of Australia’s finest sparkling wines. When used to make dry red wines, the Pinot Noir needs to be grown in slightly warmer areas. Generally speaking, it does not grow in hot climates.
Wine Making Process
The production of white and red wine is similar. The main difference is that red wine is made by letting the juice, skins, and seeds ferment together before pressing the wine, whereas white wine is pressed and then fermented.
The following are the common terms used in wine production.
Vinification is the term used for making wine while viticulture is the science and study of grapes and their production.
The winemaker has to be able to grow wine successfully and consider the factors of terroir, climate, pests, pruning, harvesting and balancing the flavor components of the finished wine.
It is the development of alcohol by converting the sugar within the wine. This process is controlled to prevent the development of wild yeast strains.
Different wines are fermented under different temperature conditions. Fermenting wine on the skin or straining it before fermentation will inhibit or develop color and affect specific taste notes.
A wine is achieved firstly in barrels where the type of wood used imparts more or less flavor. For fresh and fruit-driven wines steel tanks are often used to control fermentation. This imparts no external flavors.
Further maturation happens in the bottle where the wine will develop a softer texture and taste with the breakdown of tannins. The age of a wine and how well it can mature plays an important role in the price.
Describes the year of harvest. If it lists a specific year it allows wine lovers to determine the flavors of the wine as the climatic conditions in that year may have been favorable or affected harvest in a negative sense.
Many sparkling wines have recently developed vintage releases whereas previously mostly blends were produced.
Used for blends where wines from a range of years are combined to achieve a balanced flavor profile. This allows for some of the harsher note to be muted or lifting floral aspects further.
New world wines
Refers primarily to wines from new world wine regions such as the United States, Australia, South America and South Africa.
Old world wines
refers primarily to wine made in Europe but can also include other regions of the Mediterranean Basin.
Varietals – these are wines that are produced with a single grape variety e.g. Chardonnay
Blends – these are a mixture or blend of different varietals to highlight and enhance certain profiles. Some of the best wines in the world such as Bordeaux or Rhone wines are blends
Principles of Wine Tasting
After you have successful produce wine, you must taste it before taking it to the consumer. While tasting your wine, use the following technique.
Hold the glass up in front of your eyes, tilting it slightly. The color of the wine can reveal its age, where it is from, and its depth.
The opacity refers to how clear the wine is, does it sparkle, or is it dull? Does it include impurities? Does it form ‘legs’ on the side of the glass?
High quality wine is usually aromatic and has a complex aroma structure. Check the intensity of smell, its key characteristics, and the condition that the wine is in. Does it have a fresh smell, cork taint, or oxidization?
White wines have 3 main taste components: acidity, alcohol, creaminess/richness/smoothness.
Red wines possess the same taste components plus astringency due to the tannins in the wine.
Always take a small sip and explore it in all areas of the mouth to get the flavor experiences and overall harmony
The following things might happen as a fault to your wine. Please observe the wine to make sure it is still the best
A wine is corked wine when it has been in contact with a cork infected with a fungus that produces 1,2,4-trichloroanisole (TCA), which gives the wine unpalatable flavors
Spoils up to 5% of all bottles of wine
Corked wine has aromas of wet cardboard, mushrooms, mold, and smelly socks
The palate will taste similar, lack fruit and is often quite bitter
Now much reduce through the introduction of shelving caps
Happens if a wine comes into free contact with oxygen
Can happen during careless winemaking or through a faulty cork
Corks are tested in the winemaker's laboratory in regards to quality to minimize spoilage
One of the most common wine faults, resulting from poor storage conditions
Caused especially through the exposure of wine to high temperatures which cause the liquid to expand
The cork maybe forced from the neck of the bottle, and pushed up and under the capsule, or the wine may expand and leak around the cork
Leads to contact with air and oxidization
Too much Sulphur
Sulfur Dioxide is commonly used as a preservative.
An excessive amount of sulfur will produce uncharacteristic aromas and flavors
Wine may taste of mothballs, burnt matches or burnt rubber
Serving Wine to the Customer
Boom! Your wine is ready to be enjoyed by customers. Observe the following standards while serving wine to the customers
Provide appropriate glassware
Before serving a wine you must ensure that the appropriate glassware is on the table. This may require replacing the glassware on the table or removing glasses that are not required
Collect the wine from storage
The waiter must find the appropriate wine and ensure that it is the correct variety and vintage. White wines and champagnes are kept in refrigerated storage while, red wines are kept closer to room temperature
Verify the selection
Before opening the bottle, the waiter brings the bottle to the table for the host to verify that it is the correct bottle that was ordered. This is important because you do not want to serve the incorrect wine and also you do not want to open an expensive bottle of wine by mistake!
Open the bottle
The waiter will open the bottle at the table, because of the customer. This is an opportunity to show off your skills. Traditionally the cork is placed in front of the host for them to inspect and identify whether there is a fault. The host may reject the bottle if the cork is faulty
Tastes the wine
A small tasting sample is usually poured for the host to try to ensure that the wine is of acceptable quality. The host may identify that the wine has been corked, oxidized or cooked and so reject it
Pour the wine
Once the wine has been approved the waiter will proceed to serve the wine, ensuring that an equal amount is poured into each glass. Some wines will need to be decanted and/or left to rest before being poured
Store the wine
If the bottle has not been emptied it should be stored in an appropriate position such as in a wine bucket beside the table or other designated place.
My task was to tell you every important thing you need to know about wine from production level to the consumer level.
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Before you leave, kindly comment on your favorite wine.